In this dissertation we will not focus on jamming attack, and will assume that some 8existing schemes, such as those proposed in [7,8], have been employed to address such attacks.Besides physical layer attacks, attackers can also try to interrupt the normal Medium Access Control (MAC) layer behaviors, such as described in .The di®erence with PGP is that in their system, certi¯cates are stored and distributed by the users. have also discussed how to build security associations with the help of mobility in mobile ad hoc networks .
To overcome the above mentioned issues, this thesis proposes an Interoperable Framework for heterogeneous MANETs called IF-MANET.
The framework hides the complexities of heterogeneous routing protocols and provides a homogeneous layer for seamless communication between these routing protocols.
However, there are no single generic ad hoc routing protocols available so far, which can address all the basic challenges of MANET as mentioned before.
Thus this diverse range of ever growing routing protocols has created barriers for mobile nodes of different MANET taxonomies to intercommunicate and hence wasting a huge amount of valuable resources.
To provide interaction between heterogeneous MANETs, the routing protocols require conversion of packets, meta-model and their behavioural capabilities.
Here, the fundamental challenge is to understand the packet level message format, meta-model and behaviour of different routing protocols, which are significantly different for different MANET Taxonomies.
By using some spreading codes only known to the communicating peers, nodes have created a secret channel among them.
Recently, several new approaches have also been proposed to handle jamming attacks in a more e±cient way, such as those proposed in [0, 55, 8, 8, 8].
MANET is a good choice for the thesis in the field of wireless communication for M.
Masters students can choose any one good topic for their thesis or research.