For example, in many small places such as registration offices, police stations, state licensing boards, and many other private and government sectors.Grand corruption is defined as corruption occurring at the highest levels of government in a way that requires significant subversion of the political, legal and economic systems.The research work on social corruption developed at The Unicist Research Institute defines that corruption allows individuals to profit from the environment through illegitimate actions while they disintegrate the system they are part of.
Despite the investment, the "Golden Toilet" remained closed for years due to the dysfunctionality and was a subject of a lengthy anti-corruption investigation into those who had created it and The group of public servants involved in the toilet's procurement received various prison sentences for recklessness, malfeasance, misuse of power and document falsifications in a 2012 court case, but were cleared of their corruption charges and received compensation, which pushed the total construction cost and subsequent related financial losses to 352,000 euros.
Various sources acclaim the Spanish People's Party – Partido Popular -, to be Europe's most corrupt party, with about yearly 45 billion euro worth of corruption.
Corruption and crime are endemic sociological occurrences which appear with regular frequency in virtually all countries on a global scale in varying degree and proportion.
Individual nations each allocate domestic resources for the control and regulation of corruption and crime.
Daniel Kaufmann, from the World Bank, extends the concept to include 'legal corruption' in which power is abused within the confines of the law—as those with power often have the ability to make laws for their protection.
The effect of corruption in infrastructure is to increase costs and construction time, lower the quality and decrease the benefit.A number of indicators and tools have been developed which can measure different forms of corruption with increasing accuracy.Petty corruption occurs at a smaller scale and takes place at the implementation end of public services when public officials meet the public.Corruption can occur in many sectors, whether they be public or private industry or even NGOs (especially in public sector).However, only in democratically controlled institutions is there an interest of the public (owner) to develop internal mechanisms to fight active or passive corruption, whereas in private industry as well as in NGOs there is no public control.is corruption which is primarily due to the weaknesses of an organization or process.It can be contrasted with individual officials or agents who act corruptly within the system.The Kaunas golden toilet case was a major Lithuanian scandal.In 2009, the municipality of Kaunas (led by mayor Andrius Kupčinskas) ordered that a shipping container was to be converted into an outdoor toilet at a cost of 500,000 litai (around 150,000 euros).Political corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain.Corruption is most commonplace in kleptocracies, oligarchies, narco-states and mafia states.