The Foundation of Computer Ethics Computer ethics as a field of study was founded by MIT professor Norbert Wiener during World War Two (early 1940s) while helping to develop an antiaircraft cannon capable of shooting down fast warplanes.
The Foundation of Computer Ethics Computer ethics as a field of study was founded by MIT professor Norbert Wiener during World War Two (early 1940s) while helping to develop an antiaircraft cannon capable of shooting down fast warplanes.One part of the cannon had to “perceive” and track an airplane, then calculate its likely trajectory and “talk” to another part of the cannon to fire the shells.Tags: Smart Thinking Skills For Critical Understanding And Writing 2 EditionEssay On Be Not ProudInformation Technology Research Paper TopicsExercises For Creative WritingEssays And Introductions 1961American Novelist Dramatist And EssayistTinker Tailor Soldier Spy EssayEssays On The Great Gatsby SymbolismHow To Write Business Plan For Restaurant
we are already in a position to construct artificial machines of almost any degree of elaborateness of performance.
Long before Nagasaki and the public awareness of the atomic bomb, it had occurred to me that we were here in the presence of another social potentiality of unheard-of importance for good and for evil. 27 – 28) which not only established him as the founder of computer ethics, but far more importantly, laid down a comprehensive computer ethics foundation which remains today – half a century later – a powerful basis for computer ethics research and analysis.
He perceptively foresaw revolutionary social and ethical consequences.
In 1948, for example, in his book It has long been clear to me that the modern ultra-rapid computing machine was in principle an ideal central nervous system to an apparatus for automatic control; and that its input and output need not be in the form of numbers or diagrams but might very well be, respectively, the readings of artificial sense organs, such as photoelectric cells or thermometers, and the performance of motors or solenoids…
The ACM appointed Parker to head a committee to create such a code, which was adopted by that professional organization in 1973.
(The ACM Code was revised in the early 1980s and again in the early 1990s.) Also in the mid 1960s, computer-enabled invasions of privacy by “big-brother” government agencies became a public worry and led to books, articles, government studies, and proposed privacy legislation.For example, thinkers like Donald Gotterbarn, Keith Miller, Simon Rogerson, and Dianne Martin – as well as organizations like Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, the Electronic Frontier Foundation and ACM-SIGCAS – have spearheaded developments relevant to computing and professional responsibility.Developments in Europe and Australia have been especially noteworthy, including new research centers in England, Poland, Holland, and Italy; the ETHICOMP series of conferences led by Simon Rogerson and the present writer; the CEPE conferences founded by Jeroen van den Hoven; and the Australian Institute of Computer Ethics headed by John Weckert and Chris Simpson. Given the explosive growth of computer ethics during the past two decades, the field appears to have a very robust and significant future.Of course, some ethical situations confront us as individuals and some as a society.Computer ethics includes consideration of both personal and social policies for the ethical use of computer technology. 266) In Moor’s view computer ethics includes, (1) identification of computer-generated policy vacuums, (2) clarification of conceptual muddles, (3) formulation of policies for the use of computer technology, and (4) ethical justification of such policies.A Standards-Setting Textbook 1985 was a watershed year for computer ethics, not only because of the special issue of Metaphilosophy and Moor’s classic article, but also because Deborah Johnson published the first major textbook in the field In her book, Johnson defined computer ethics as a field which examines ways that computers “pose new versions of standard moral problems and moral dilemmas, exacerbating the old problems, and forcing us to apply ordinary moral norms in uncharted realms.” (p.1) Unlike Maner (see Maner 1996), with whom she had discussed computer ethics in the late 1970s, Johnson did not think that computers created wholly new ethical problems, but rather gave a “new twist” to already familiar issues such as ownership, power, privacy and responsibility.In 1983, as Editor of the journal – was published; and it quickly became the widest-selling issue in the journal’s history.The lead article – and winner of the essay competition – was James Moor’s now-classic essay, “What Is Computer Ethics?Exponential Growth Since 1985, the field of computer ethics has grown exponentially.New university courses, research centers, conferences, articles and textbooks have appeared, and a wide diversity of additional scholars and topics have become involved.