Ecstasy Research Paper

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Nobody had reported similar findings before, but this mattered little; anti-drug activists had the proof they had long been seeking that MDMA was much worse than just a harmless party drug.

But it later emerged that the findings were fatally flawed because the MDMA had been mixed up with methamphetamine — a drug of abuse already known to be potentially fatal.

His 10 squirrel monkeys and baboons had instead been injected with overdoses of methamphetamine, and two of them had died.

The labels on two vials he bought in 2000, he said, were somehow switched.

It is hard to find impartial observers in the highly politicized debate over illegal drugs. Ricaurte cited in his own defense said that while his high media profile had made him a ''whipping boy'' for those favoring Ecstasy research, some of his best-known work has nonetheless been ''sloppy'' or ''not as methodologically rigorous as you might want.'' Longtime critics are harsher.'' It's hard to trust George,'' said Dr. Ricaurte included, is that there is no proof thus far that Ecstasy causes permanent human brain damage. Kish of the Center for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto published a review of all Ecstasy research, including Dr. The two revealed their names and occupations but declined to be fully identified for fear their former drug use would hurt their careers.

Julie Holland, a professor of psychiatry at New York University who has edited a book on Ecstasy and wants to test it in psychotherapy. In animal studies, very high doses have destroyed serotonin-pathway nerves, which convey pleasure and affect memory and appetite. Ricaurte's, and concluded that there was no evidence that Ecstasy caused the tremors of Parkinsonism or any other brain damage ''with the possible (but as yet unproven) exception of mild memory loss.'' Some heavy users have memory problems, but no studies prove the loss is permanent, or that it is caused by Ecstasy rather than other drugs in the mix that virtually all heavy users take. Greg is a graduate student in chemistry at a leading university.The drug has also been reported in conjunction with at least 12 cases of psychosis in the medical literature.Of course, much scientific research is driven by non-scientific motivations, and no drug would ever be proven to work in clinical trials without an interested champion.She accused him of ''playing games with his data'' to win more federal grants by making the drugs look bad. Ecstasy -- invented in Germany in 1912 by Merck Pharmaceuticals in its search for an anti-bleeding drug -- has been outlawed in the United States since 1985, a decision that Dr. Since about 1970, when it was called Adam, some psychiatrists had tried giving low doses to trauma victims; in 1985, they stopped, fearing arrest. Holland says it relieves anxiety-provoking memories like a sedative, but as an amphetamine, it does not induce sleep. A.'s expert were confused and believed that Dr. His friend, who said he used to follow Grateful Dead tours selling up to 10,000 doses of LSD a month, now works at a West Coast law firm and is in line for a federal job.Patients ''want to talk things through.'' As a potent painkiller, she said, it also may help the terminally ill. Molliver, a Hopkins colleague who frequently published with Dr. But transcripts of a follow-up hearing in November 1995 provided by Dr. Curious to see if they had damaged their brains, and enticed by a promise of 0 a day and a free East Coast trip, they enlisted.Opponents of the trials say that the trials' organizers are playing with fire by introducing potentially toxic substances into perhaps unstable people. The truth is that there is a shortage of scientific logic on both sides of the MDMA debate.Those who demonize the drug are so convinced of its deadly nature that, when Johns Hopkins researcher George Ricaurte reported that even a single dose of MDMA causes debilitating, Parkinson's-like disease in monkeys (G. Science 297, 2260–2263; 2002), the paper was widely touted as proof that MDMA was fatally toxic.A primate study it published in 2002, with heavy publicity, warned that the amount of the drug Ecstasy that a typical user consumes in a single night might cause permanent brain damage.It turned out that the

Julie Holland, a professor of psychiatry at New York University who has edited a book on Ecstasy and wants to test it in psychotherapy. In animal studies, very high doses have destroyed serotonin-pathway nerves, which convey pleasure and affect memory and appetite. Ricaurte's, and concluded that there was no evidence that Ecstasy caused the tremors of Parkinsonism or any other brain damage ''with the possible (but as yet unproven) exception of mild memory loss.'' Some heavy users have memory problems, but no studies prove the loss is permanent, or that it is caused by Ecstasy rather than other drugs in the mix that virtually all heavy users take. Greg is a graduate student in chemistry at a leading university.

The drug has also been reported in conjunction with at least 12 cases of psychosis in the medical literature.

Of course, much scientific research is driven by non-scientific motivations, and no drug would ever be proven to work in clinical trials without an interested champion.

She accused him of ''playing games with his data'' to win more federal grants by making the drugs look bad. Ecstasy -- invented in Germany in 1912 by Merck Pharmaceuticals in its search for an anti-bleeding drug -- has been outlawed in the United States since 1985, a decision that Dr. Since about 1970, when it was called Adam, some psychiatrists had tried giving low doses to trauma victims; in 1985, they stopped, fearing arrest. Holland says it relieves anxiety-provoking memories like a sedative, but as an amphetamine, it does not induce sleep. A.'s expert were confused and believed that Dr. His friend, who said he used to follow Grateful Dead tours selling up to 10,000 doses of LSD a month, now works at a West Coast law firm and is in line for a federal job.

Patients ''want to talk things through.'' As a potent painkiller, she said, it also may help the terminally ill. Molliver, a Hopkins colleague who frequently published with Dr. But transcripts of a follow-up hearing in November 1995 provided by Dr. Curious to see if they had damaged their brains, and enticed by a promise of $100 a day and a free East Coast trip, they enlisted.

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Julie Holland, a professor of psychiatry at New York University who has edited a book on Ecstasy and wants to test it in psychotherapy. In animal studies, very high doses have destroyed serotonin-pathway nerves, which convey pleasure and affect memory and appetite. Ricaurte's, and concluded that there was no evidence that Ecstasy caused the tremors of Parkinsonism or any other brain damage ''with the possible (but as yet unproven) exception of mild memory loss.'' Some heavy users have memory problems, but no studies prove the loss is permanent, or that it is caused by Ecstasy rather than other drugs in the mix that virtually all heavy users take. Greg is a graduate student in chemistry at a leading university.The drug has also been reported in conjunction with at least 12 cases of psychosis in the medical literature.Of course, much scientific research is driven by non-scientific motivations, and no drug would ever be proven to work in clinical trials without an interested champion.She accused him of ''playing games with his data'' to win more federal grants by making the drugs look bad. Ecstasy -- invented in Germany in 1912 by Merck Pharmaceuticals in its search for an anti-bleeding drug -- has been outlawed in the United States since 1985, a decision that Dr. Since about 1970, when it was called Adam, some psychiatrists had tried giving low doses to trauma victims; in 1985, they stopped, fearing arrest. Holland says it relieves anxiety-provoking memories like a sedative, but as an amphetamine, it does not induce sleep. A.'s expert were confused and believed that Dr. His friend, who said he used to follow Grateful Dead tours selling up to 10,000 doses of LSD a month, now works at a West Coast law firm and is in line for a federal job.Patients ''want to talk things through.'' As a potent painkiller, she said, it also may help the terminally ill. Molliver, a Hopkins colleague who frequently published with Dr. But transcripts of a follow-up hearing in November 1995 provided by Dr. Curious to see if they had damaged their brains, and enticed by a promise of $100 a day and a free East Coast trip, they enlisted.Opponents of the trials say that the trials' organizers are playing with fire by introducing potentially toxic substances into perhaps unstable people. The truth is that there is a shortage of scientific logic on both sides of the MDMA debate.Those who demonize the drug are so convinced of its deadly nature that, when Johns Hopkins researcher George Ricaurte reported that even a single dose of MDMA causes debilitating, Parkinson's-like disease in monkeys (G. Science 297, 2260–2263; 2002), the paper was widely touted as proof that MDMA was fatally toxic.A primate study it published in 2002, with heavy publicity, warned that the amount of the drug Ecstasy that a typical user consumes in a single night might cause permanent brain damage.It turned out that the $1.3 million study, led by Dr. Ricaurte of Johns Hopkins University, had not used Ecstasy at all.On the other side of the debate, MDMA's supporters claim that the drug is a potentially valuable therapeutic aid with little risk of causing lasting brain damage.They argue that studies showing that MDMA leads to cognitive deficiencies are procedurally flawed, and that there is no proof that a few doses of the drug will cause harm.

.3 million study, led by Dr. Ricaurte of Johns Hopkins University, had not used Ecstasy at all.On the other side of the debate, MDMA's supporters claim that the drug is a potentially valuable therapeutic aid with little risk of causing lasting brain damage.They argue that studies showing that MDMA leads to cognitive deficiencies are procedurally flawed, and that there is no proof that a few doses of the drug will cause harm.

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