One cause of this proliferation was the commercial opportunities such tests offered to developers and the difficulties faced by researchers seeking to obtain copyrighted measures (see section Mixed EI for a summary of commercial measures).
A further cause of this proliferation was the difficulty researchers faced in developing measures with good psychometric properties.
We take into account such factors as test length, number of facets measured and whether tests are freely available. doi: 10.1037/a0034138 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Siegling, A.
Consequently we also provide recommendations both for users willing to purchase tests and those preferring to utilize freely available measures.
We include comprehensive tables summarizing key empirical studies on each measure, in terms of their research design and main findings.
Our review includes measures that are academic and/or commercial as well as those that are freely available or require payment. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00001-4 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Sheldon, O.
In our detailed literature review, we focus on a set of widely used measures and summarize evidence for their validity, reliability, and conceptual basis.
Our review includes studies that focus purely on psychometric properties of EI measures as well as studies conducted within applied settings, particularly health care settings. Emotionally unskilled, unaware, and uninterested in learning more: reactions to feedback about deficits in emotional intelligence.
Other measures utilized broader definitions of EI that included social effectiveness in addition to typical EI facets (see Ashkanasy and Daus, 2005) (e.g., Boyatzis et al., 2000; Boyatzis and Goleman, 2007).
Over time it became clear that these different measures were tapping into related, yet distinct underlying constructs.