Essay On Injustice Against Women

Essay On Injustice Against Women-69
The third section of the publication contains essays from key thinkers who have championed the `social harm' perspective as a preferable alternative to traditional notions of `crime'.Section four examines questions of policing communities while the essays in section five considers the ways in which the actions of young people are currently regulated.

The third section of the publication contains essays from key thinkers who have championed the `social harm' perspective as a preferable alternative to traditional notions of `crime'.Section four examines questions of policing communities while the essays in section five considers the ways in which the actions of young people are currently regulated.

These dynamics limit women’s choices, opportunities and access to information, health and social services, education and employment.

For example, in 29 countries women require the consent of a spouse/partner to access sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services.10 and 75% of women aged 15 to19 do not have a final say in decisions about their own health.11 Gender assessments of national HIV epidemics and responses carried out in Burundi, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, DRC, Gabon, Nigeria and Senegal in 2016 found women and girls were vulnerable to HIV — in part due to laws and policies that maintain traditional gender roles — and that women in key populations had limited access to services.12 In many places, discriminatory social and cultural norms are translated into laws which repress the autonomy of young women as demonstrated by the fact that 75% of women aged 15 to 19 do not have a final say in decisions about their own health.13In 146 countries, laws allow girls under 18 to marry with the consent of their parents, while in 52 countries, the same applies to girls under 15.14 Stigma and discrimination further exacerbate women’s vulnerability to HIV and undermine the response to the epidemic.15 In particular, women in key populations face numerous and specific challenges and barriers, including violence and violations of their human rights, in health care settings and from uniformed personnel.16 Although the prevalence of intimate partner violence among married or partnered women decreased between 20 17, it remains high across the world – affecting one in three woman globally18 – and is particularly common in certain regions.19 The fear of intimate partner violence has been shown to be an important barrier to the uptake of HIV testing and counselling, to the disclosure of HIV-positive status, and to treatment uptake and adherence, including among pregnant women who are receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) as part of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT).20 In places with high HIV prevalence, women who experience intimate partner violence are 50% more likely to acquire HIV than women who do not.21 It can also disrupt HIV prevention services.

Studies by Plan International in Senegal, Mali, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Togo, Liberia and Uganda found violence in primary and secondary schools, while varying across countries, to be prevalent.

The research found that inappropriate sexual relations between male teachers and female students, including transactional sex to cover school fees and the cost of school materials and sex for grades to be common.

Despite more than a decade in power, New Labour has failed to tackle deep-rooted social injustices, according to a collection of essays from more than 20 researchers and academics.

Essay On Injustice Against Women

Historically high levels of inequality, endemic violence against women and the increasing reliance on criminal justice measures to manage social problems are just some of the themes explored in , published by the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies.Girls who marry as children are more likely to be beaten or threatened by their husbands than girls who marry later, and are more likely to describe their first sexual experience as forced.As minors, child brides are rarely able to assert their wishes, such as whether to practice safer sex.25 These factors all increase HIV risk.In the opening section, entitled `Neoliberalism and New Labour', Professor Robert Reiner of the London School of Economics argues in his essay that punitive and authoritarian crime control policies are a product of Labour's economic and social policies.Given the extensive evidence of the relationship between income inequality and violent victimisation, he suggests that the more far reaching social policies that would address inequality are necessary for genuine progress.Many of those interviewed, while showing certain ambivalence, justified their actions on the basis that the women in question had not been `forced'.Coy argues that broad-based strategies that seek to challenge dangerous male attitudes and actions towards women need to complement standard criminal justice responses.The second section, `Violence against women' explores issues of male violence and attitudes to prostitution.For her essay in this section, Maddy Coy of London Metropolitan University interviewed men who had paid for sex with women.Explore this page to find out more about how gender inequality increases a woman’s vulnerability to HIV, what is being done to tackle gender inequality and read about programmes tackling gender inequality and HIV.Despite progress in many aspects of the global HIV response, women - particularly adolescent girls and young women - continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV.

SHOW COMMENTS

Comments Essay On Injustice Against Women

The Latest from chesh.ru ©