Because persons born in Puerto Rico were born outside of the United States, they could only acquire a derivative form of parental or jus sanguinis citizenship. This meant that only the children of citizens born in Puerto Rico could acquire U. Although Congress had previously collectively naturalized individual Native American nations, and later all Native Americans, it had not treated the land they inhabited as territories or potential states for constitutional purposes.
For constitutional purposes, persons born in Puerto Rico were not citizens at birth, but they were naturalized citizens like the child of any U. To this extent, the Jones Act represented an advance for American citizenship: Never before had the country extended citizenship to an annexed, albeit unincorporated, territory that was not considered a state-in-the-making. citizenship, it could not strip them of this right.
In Florida, these forms of mutual support also helped to shield the community’s Afro-Caribbean immigrants from the extreme racism of the Jim Crow Era.
While blacks and whites worked side-by-side in the cigar factories, women worked apart from the men and in the more menial parts of cigar production.
Federal lawmakers took these debates into account when drafting the citizenship provision of the Jones Act.
The Jones Act of 1917 amended the Foraker Act of 1900 to address a number of lingering problems in the local government. A subsequent 1938 amendment retroactively naturalized Puerto Rico-born residents. Two years later, Congress replaced the Jones Act with the Nationality Act of 1940.
the right to intervene at any time in Cuban domestic affairs, and the land rights for a U. Over the next 15 years, Cuban immigration and Puerto Rican migration expanded to include not only the middle and upper classes but the working class as well.
Cuba and Puerto Rico’s intertwined fates as new American possessions fostered solidarity between the two exile communities, and led the Puerto Rican poet Lola Rodríguez de Tió to exclaim that Cuba and Puerto Rico were “the two wings of the same bird” ().
The result was the development of a national political discourse and the definition of a Puerto Rican cultural identity.
Publications from the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century, including chronicles, historical essays, political debates, memoirs, government records, and newspaper articles, document the socio-political dynamics on the island during the last century of Spanish rule and the early period of colonial government under the United States.