Paper Making Research And Development

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Fiber diameter, fiber length, cell wall thickness, and lumen diameter were viewed and measured, and image was captured and recorded under calibrated Axioskop NIKON compound microscope.

The fiber dimensions determination was following the method of Ververis et al. All fiber dimensions were used to determine the derived values, slenderness ratio, flexibility coefficient, and Runkel ratio, following Tamolang [15] and calculated as shown below.

To reduce the loss of rainforests, an attempt was made to find the alternative source of fiber for paper.

Some alternatives have been used to replace the wood fiber with nonwood derived fibers [1] from agriculture residues such as wheat and rice straw, sorghum stalks, jute, and hemp for paper production [7, 8].

Although the major source of fiber for paper production is from wood plant, nonwood aquatic plants with less lignin content have potentials to be used as an alternative fiber source [13].

Handmade paper industry is an environmental friendly and very promising industry for local entrepreneurship.The cellulose content determination was performed in triplicates.The cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin contents were calculated based on the formula described by Moubasher et al.Aquatic plants, Cyperus digitatus, Cyperus halpan, Cyperus rotundus, Scirpus grossus and Typha angustifolia, found in abundance in ponds (N 02° 59.109′, E 101° 41.432′) at Universiti Putra Malaysia and wetland areas (N 02° 59.163′, E 101° 39.000′) around Selangor, Malaysia, were chosen and collected for this study.Plants were cleaned, leaves were removed, and stems were kept for determination of fiber dimension and derived values.Papers made from aquatic plants have multiple uses.They can be used for writing, food wrapping, tissue paper, and book mark and can be commercialized as value added materials for handmade crafts.Aquatic plants are nonfood plants and they have large differences in their physical and chemical characteristics [12, 13]. [5], fiber dimension, lignin, and cellulose content of nonwood plants determine their suitability for paper production.Under certain conditions, tearing resistance of the paper is highly dependent on fiber dimension, that is, fiber length [14].Of the five aquatic plant species, Cyperus rotundus, Scirpus grossus, and Typha angustifolia were chosen based on their fiber dimensions and derived values (lower and higher values as determined from Section 2.2 above) for evaluation of their chemical composition.The stems were ground and sieved with 250 μm sieve.

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