Pediatrician Research Essay

Also among the first books about pediatrics was Libellus [Opusculum] de aegritudinibus et remediis infantium 1472 ("Little Book on Children Diseases and Treatment"), by the Italian pediatrician Paolo Bagellardo.In sequence came Bartholomäus Metlinger's Ein Regiment der Jungerkinder 1473, Cornelius Roelans (1450–1525) no title Buchlein, or Latin compendium, 1483, and Heinrich von Louffenburg (1391–1460) Versehung des Leibs written in 1429 (published 1491), together form the Pediatric Incunabula, four great medical treatises on children's physiology and pathology.

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Islamic writers served as a bridge for Greco-Roman and Byzantine medicine and added ideas of their own, especially Haly Abbas, Serapion, Avicenna, and Averroes.

The Persian philosopher and physician al-Razi (865–925) published a monograph on pediatrics titled Diseases in Children as well as the first definite description of smallpox as a clinical entity.

A medical doctor who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician, or paediatrician.

The word pediatrics and its cognates mean "healer of children"; they derive from two Greek words: understood the differences in growing and maturing organisms that necessitated different treatment: Ex toto non sic pueri ut viri curari debent ("In general, boys should not be treated in the same way as men").

Pediatric patients have underdeveloped proteins, which leads to decreased metabolism and increased serum concentrations of specific drugs.

However, prodrugs experience the opposite effect because enzymes are necessary in allowing their active form to enter systemic circulation.Percentage of total body water and extracellular fluid volume both decrease as children grow and develop with time.Pediatric patients thus have a larger volume of distribution than adults, which directly affects the dosing of hydrophilic drugs such as beta-lactam antibiotics like ampicillin.Phase I and Phase II enzymes have different rates of maturation and development, depending on their specific mechanism of action (ie.oxidation, hydrolysis, acetylation, methylation, etc.). Enzyme capacity, clearance, and half-life are all factors that contribute to metabolism differences between children and adults.Drug absorption also depends on specific enzymes that come in contact with the oral drug as it travels through the body.Supply of these enzymes increase as children continue to develop their gastrointestinal tract.Congenital defects, genetic variance, and developmental issues are of greater concern to pediatricians than they often are to adult physicians.A common adage is that children are not simply "little adults".The first generally accepted pediatric hospital is the Hôpital des Enfants Malades (French: Hospital for Sick Children), which opened in Paris in June 1802 on the site of a previous orphanage.and it continues to this day as the pediatric division of the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, created in 1920 by merging with the physically contiguous Necker Hospital, founded in 1778.

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