In the example below, the citation was used in the 4th footnote, therefore the subsequent citation directs the reader to that footnote.
In the text: 'Criminalising a broad range of marginally acceptable business conduct trivialises the criminal sanction and breeds contempt for it, at least among rational actors, which most white collar offenders are.
Other styles that document sources with footnotes or endnotes use ibid.
to point to a source that was cited in a preceding note.
The different categories of sources are cited in different formats.
Before examples are given, some general rules should be mentioned: When referencing an identical authority to one already referenced you may briefly identify the sources and provide a cross-citation in brackets directing the reader to the number of the corresponding footnote.
Legal sources such as cases and statues may be cited, along with secondary sources, for example, books and journals.
If you are looking for our OSCOLA Reference Generator then click on the button below: OSCOLA Reference Generator Under the OSCOLA guidelines, each authority should be cited in a consistent, uniform manner.
If, for example, you are referencing something like The Effects of Factory-Produced Emissions on the Greater Nile Watershed: An Environmental Study, that's a long title to have to refer to again and again.
Instead, you can reference the title in a footnote, and then use “ibid” in future footnotes.