In these pages we consider these two activities separately, while recognising that in many kinds of thesis they will be integrated.Write down all the things you know now that you didn't know when you started the research. (At this point, don't worry about whether they relate to your aims or research questions.) 2. Do all the headings relate to the research question(s)? Freewriting on a topic means taking a fresh piece of paper or opening a new word-processor document and writing anything that comes into your head on that topic for a limited time. In a traditional doctoral thesis, this will consist of a number of chapters where you present the data that forms the basis of your investigation, shaped by the way you have thought about it.It must be in whole sentences and you must not stop. In a thesis including publication, it will be the central section of an article.The form of your chapters should be consistent with this story and its components.Contents: For many kinds of research, the main work of interpretation cannot be done until most of the data has been collected and analysed.This section is concerned with presenting the analysis of the results of data analysis.There is a great deal of disciplinary variation in the presentation of findings.For others, the data already exists (in the form of archival documents or literary texts, for example), and the work of interpreting it begins much earlier in the research process.Whatever kind of research you are doing, there comes a moment when your head is full of ideas that have emerged from your analysis.The first step is to clarify for yourself what you know now, as a result of your research. You could try highlighting key words, or identifying any points that need further investigation.David Evans and Paul Gruba (2002, p.112) remind us that our minds continue to work on problems when we aren't thinking about them consciously. The challenge for every thesis writer is to hold the detail of the data in focus without losing sight of the big picture of the research.