University Of Portsmouth Library Dissertations

University Of Portsmouth Library Dissertations-58
Overall, this dissertation illustrates the importance of an intensive reading program and the need for continuing supports, and that both academic and neuroimaging measures are associated with reading outcome. Ed., The University of British Columbia, 2013 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (School Psychology) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) August 2017 © Marita Helmi Partanen, 2017 ii ABSTRACT Early intervention is important for decreasing the prevalence of reading disabilities.ACADEMIC AND NEUROIMAGING OUTCOMES OF SCHOOL-BASED READING INTERVENTIONS by MARITA HELMI PARTANEN B. However, despite receiving treatment, some children continue to struggle with reading and therefore they require ongoing supports.

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The main purpose of this dissertation was to examine the outcomes of reading tutoring programs in school, which were measured by academic tests and brain imaging.

The results showed that students who completed an intensive reading program had increased reading skills over time, and there were changes in brain function but not structure.

I am very thankful to have mentors and colleagues like you.

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The results showed that students in the intensive program had improved word recognition and decoding fluency immediately after intervention and one year later.

Changes after intervention were also shown in functional brain activity during a rhyming task, but not during a spelling task or in grey and white matter structures.

EFFECT OF INTERVENTION AND TASK DIFFICULTY ON ORTHOGRAPHIC AND PHONOLOGICAL READING SYSTEMS IN THE BRAIN ......................................................37 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................37 Methods ...................................................................................................................................................38 Participants ..........................................................................................................................................38 Screening, Literacy, and Cognitive Measures .....................................................................................39 MRI Measures .....................................................................................................................................39 vi MRI Analyses ......................................................................................................................................41 Analyses and Results ...............................................................................................................................42 Demographic Information and Change in Literacy Skills ..................................................................42 Accuracy and Reaction Time on f MRI Tasks .....................................................................................44 Whole-Brain Activation from f MRI Tasks .........................................................................................45 Region of Interest Analyses ................................................................................................................49 f MRI and Behavioural Predictors of Improved Literacy Skills ..........................................................52 Discussion ................................................................................................................................................53 Brain Regions Involved for Orthographic and Phonological Tasks ...................................................53 Effect of Intervention on Behavioural and f MRI Reading Tasks .......................................................54 Effect of Task Difficulty .....................................................................................................................56 Limitations ..........................................................................................................................................57 Conclusions .........................................................................................................................................57 CHAPTER 4. Main effect of group on the f MRI spelling and rhyming tasks in regions of interest 50 Figure 3.6.

DIFFERENCES IN WHITE AND GREY MATTER STRUCTURES BEFORE AND AFTER READING INTERVENTION ....................................................................................................59 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................59 Methods ...................................................................................................................................................60 Participants ..........................................................................................................................................60 MRI Measures .....................................................................................................................................60 Grey Matter Analyses .........................................................................................................................61 White Matter Analyses ........................................................................................................................62 Results .....................................................................................................................................................64 Grey Matter Structures ........................................................................................................................64 White Matter Structures ......................................................................................................................67 Grey and White Matter Predictors of Improved Reading ...................................................................71 Discussion ................................................................................................................................................72 Group Differences in Grey and White Matter Structures ...................................................................72 No Effect of Intervention in Grey and White Matter Structures .........................................................74 White Matter is Associated with Improved Reading Skills ................................................................74 Limitations ..........................................................................................................................................75 Conclusions .........................................................................................................................................75 CHAPTER 5. Brain regions implicated in reading development and impairment ............................ Results for the literacy tests across time and by group .............................................. Results for the language and cognitive tests across time and by group ..................... f MRI spelling and rhyming tasks ............................................................................... Whole-brain activation maps for the f MRI spelling task ........................................... Whole-brain activation maps for the f MRI rhyming task .......................................... Regions of interest ...................................................................................................... Group by time interactions in the left hemisphere on the f MRI rhyming task ........... Group by time interactions in the right hemisphere on the f MRI rhyming task ........ Grey and white matter segmentation in Freesurfer .................................................... White matter pathways from probabilistic tractography ............................................ Main effect of group in surface area ........................................................................... Main effect of group in cortical thickness .................................................................. Main effect of group in fractional anisotropy ............................................................. Main effect of group in mean diffusivity ................................................................... Change from pre-test to post-test in mean diffusivity ................................................

v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................. ii LAY ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................... iii PREFACE ................................................................................................................................................... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................v LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................................... GENERAL INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................1 Reading Development ...............................................................................................................................1 Reading Disabilities ...................................................................................................................................2 Reading Interventions ................................................................................................................................4 Standardized Reading Programs ...........................................................................................................4 Evaluation of Intensive Reading Interventions .....................................................................................7 Neurobiological Model of Reading ...........................................................................................................9 Brain Function .....................................................................................................................................10 Brain Structure ....................................................................................................................................12 Neuroimaging Studies of Reading Interventions ....................................................................................14 Standardized Programs ........................................................................................................................15 Intensive Programs ..............................................................................................................................15 Response to Intervention .....................................................................................................................16 Current Research Goals ...........................................................................................................................18 CHAPTER 2.

vii LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................. viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................................................................... LONGITUDINAL OUTCOMES OF AN INDIVIDUALIZED AND INTENSIVE READING INTERVENTION ..................................................................................................................20 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................20 Method .....................................................................................................................................................20 Participants ..........................................................................................................................................21 Reading Programs ...............................................................................................................................21 Study Design .......................................................................................................................................23 Measures .............................................................................................................................................24 Results .....................................................................................................................................................27 Demographics .....................................................................................................................................27 Intervention Outcomes ........................................................................................................................28 Predictors of Reading Outcome ..........................................................................................................33 Discussion ................................................................................................................................................34 Improved Reading Skills After Intensive Intervention .......................................................................34 Predictors of Persistent Reading Deficits ............................................................................................35 Skills Not Improved After Intensive Intervention ..............................................................................35 Considerations and Conclusions .........................................................................................................36 CHAPTER 3.

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